SCORM Navigation

SCORM Navigation defines how learning and system initiated navigation events are triggered and processed, resulting in the identification of learning activity for delivery. Navigation is the process by which a learner and an LMS cooperate to identify navigation requests to realize a learning experience.

For a learner to access a course or any of its activities, it must issue a navigation request. The result of each navigation request (ideally) is one of two things: an activity is delivered to the learner or the current activity is taken away. Note that only one activity can be experienced by the learner at a time.

How the LMS knows which activity to deliver in response to a navigation request is defined by the content package's activity tree and sequencing information. By default, a learner experiencing a content package will choose an activity from the tree to launch.

Navigation Events

Navigation events can be triggered by a learner through user interface devices provided by the LMS or content or directly by SCOs. The LMS will determine the type and style of the user interface presented to a learner at run-time for navigation.

    Navigation Events, their source, and description:
  • Start - LMS; request to identify the first or "starting" activity of a tree, typically generated automatically by the LMS when the learning begins a new attempt
  • Resume All - LMS; request to resume a previously suspended attempt on an activity tree
  • Continue - LMS or SCO; request to identify the "next" logical learning activity (in relation to the current activity) available in the tree
  • Previous - LMS or SCO; request to identify the "previous" logical learning activity (in relation to the current activity) in the tree
  • Choose - LMS or SCO; request to "jump" directly to a specific learning activity in the tree
  • Abandon - LMS or SCO; request to prematurely or abnormally terminate the current attempt on the current activity
  • Abandon All - LMS or SCO; request to prematurely or abnormally terminate the current attempt on the root activity of the tree
  • Suspend All - LMS or SCO; request to "pause" the current attempt on the root activity of the tree
  • Unqualified Exit - LMS or SCO; indicates the attempt on the current activity has finished normally and not as the result of another navigation event
  • Exit All - LMS or SCO; indicates the current attempt on the root activity of the tree has finished normally

    The result of processing a navigation event will be one of the following:
  • If the effect of the event is to end the current attempt on the activity tree, the LMS will process an Exit All request and return control to the LMS
  • The request will be honored and the sequencing system will be invoked, resulting in one of the following:
    • A learning activity is identified for delivery
    • No learning activity is identified for delivery
    • An exception occurs resulting in undefined LMS-handled behavior
  • The request will not be honored and the LMS will take no action until another navigation request is issued